A brief description of the more commonly seen military aircraft, photographed in the USA Low Flying System.
The Northrop T-38 Talon is a two-seat twin engined supersonic advanced jet trainer, introduced into service with the United
States Air Force in March 1961. The aircraft superseded the subsonic Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star and complimented the subsonic
Cessna T-37 Tweet in pilot training.
Powered by two Turbojet General Electric J85-GE-5 afterburning engines, the T-38 was the worlds first supersonic trainer having a top speed of Mach 1.08 (812mph or 1307km/h at sea level) a range of 1093 miles (1,759km) and a maximum ceiling above 55,000ft.
A two-seat tandem cockpit offers the student seated in the front and instructor in the rear a good all round view. The aircraft engines are positioned side-by-side, with small air intakes positioned just aft of the cockpit either side of a well-contoured aerodynamic fueslage. The small area main plains are low mounted, as are the tailplanes with a single vertical tail. A tricycle undercarriage retracts into a relatively clean and flat belly.
Most T-38's were of the T-38A variant, but a small number were designated AT-38B which were converted for
weapons training. This variant was fitted with a gunsight and could carry a gun pod, rocktes or bombs on a centreline pylon.
Begining in in the year 2000 most T-38A's and T-38B's were being converted to the T-38C as part of an Avionics Upgrade Program (AUP), which included an all-glass cockpit display, the addition of a Head-Up Display (HUD), Global Positioning System (GPS), Inertial Navigation System (INS) and a Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS). The majority of aircraft also received engine modifications under the Propulsion Modernization Program (PMP), where the engines were modified to enhance reliability and maintainability, while engine inlet/injector modifications increased available takeoff thrust. Airframes with high usage also underwent structural replacements and upgrades, with some receiving new wings to extend their service life to 2029.
Apart from learning aerobatics, formation flying, night instrumentation and cross-country navigation training, the T-38C allows students to learn the advanced systems used in the modern day fighters and bombers onto which they will progress.
Being a versatile and relatively low cost aircraft to operate, the T-38 is used as a proficiency aircraft for U-2 and B-2 pilots respectively and also as a training aircraft by test pilots and test engineers at the U.S. Air Force Test Pilots School at Edwards Air Force Base, California. Air Force Material Command (AFMC) use the T-38 to test experimental equipment such as electrical weapons systems, while NASA use it as a chase plane and trainer for astronauts and observers.
The T-38 Talon is still in service today (as of 2019) and is the most produced jet trainer, with 1,146 being built between 1961 and 1972.
In the early 1970's the United States Navy under the ‘Naval Fighter-Attack Experimental’ (VFAX) Program
was looking to procure a multirole combat aircraft to replace the Douglas A-4 Skyhawk, Vought A-7 Corsair II and McDonnell
Douglas F‑4 Phantom II's. Also the Navy's primary air superiority fighter//fleet defence interceptor, the Grumman
F‑14 Tomcat, though very capable was a very expensive aircraft to operate and Congress had mandated that the Navy pursue a lower
Around the same time, the United States Air Force had initiated the ‘Lightweight Fighter’ (LWF) Technology Evaluation Program to look at the concept of a light-weight fighter, which would be highly manoeuvrable with a high thrust‑to‑weight ratio. The program resulted in the development of the General Dynamics YF‑16 and Northrop YF‑17 (Cobra).
The Navy was directed to evaluate the two aircraft and though the single-engined YF‑16 won the LWF competition and went into service with the Air Force as the F-16 Fighting Falcon, the Navy opted for the twin-engined YF‑17 after Northrop teamed with McDonnell Douglas to produce a heavily re-designed version called the F/A-18 Hornet. The F/A-18 designation means the aircraft was designed to be both a fighter and an attack aircraft. The single seat variant was designated F/A-18A and the two-seater F/A-18B. The two-seat F/A-18B was designed to be fully combat-capable, but was used primarily for training.
The F/A-18 Hornet first flew in November 1978, entering service with the United States Navy in November 1983 and the
United States Marine Corps in January 1984, with the aircraft becoming the Navy's main fighter aircraft as the F‑14 Tomcat was
relegated to the interceptor role.
The F/A-18 though similar in appearance to the YF-17 with its canted vertical stabilizers is a vastly different aircraft. The airframe and landing gear are strengthened, with the addition of wing-fold mechanisms, an arrestor hook and catapult attachments for carrier operations. The aircraft is highly manoeuvrable with its two General Electric F404-400 engines giving a high thrust to weight ratio. The engines were designed with operability, reliability and maintainability first and though their performance is unexceptional, they are robust and resistant to stall and flameout. A digital fly‑by‑wire control system with quadruple redundancy (the first to be installed in a production fighter) and Leading Edge Extensions (LEX) allow the aircraft to remain controllable at high angles of attack.
The Hornets primary missions are fighter escort, fleet air defence, suppression of enemy air defences, air interdiction, close air support and aerial reconnaissance. The aircraft has a head-up display and multi-function CRT displays, the latter which allow the pilot to easily transition between fighter or attack roles, or perform both.
The Hornet can carry a wide variety of bombs and missiles, including air‑to‑air and air‑to‑ground ordnance, supplemented by a 20mm M61 Vulcan Cannon.
In 1987 McDonnell Douglas (the prime contractor) introduced the single-seat F/A-18C and two-seat F/A-18D (the latter can be configured for training or as an all-weather strike aircraft). The F/A-18C and D had upgraded radar, avionics, improved night attack capabilities and the capacity to carry a new range of air‑to‑air and air‑to‑ground missiles, while uprated F404‑GE‑402 engines gave a 10% increase in static thrust.
The F/A‑18 has a top speed of Mach 1.8 (1,190mph or 1,914km/h) at 40,000ft (12,200m) with a range of 1,089nm (2,017km). The aircraft has nine hardpoints, two on the wingtips, four under-wing and three under-fueslage, with a capacity of 13,700lb (6,200kg) for external fuel or ordnance.
The F/A-18 Hornet saw combat during the 1986 bombing of Libya, the 1990/1991 Gulf War, the 2003 Iraq War, the Balkans and Afghanistan.
Though the United States Navy retired the F/A-18C from combat roles in April 2018, the United States Marine Corps plan to use the F/A-18C/D till the 2030's, when it will be replaced by the F-35B and F-35C.